Contributions of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and traditional vascular
risk factors to peripheral artery disease in women

Emily Cedarbauma, Yifei Maa, Rebecca Scherzera,b 


Objectives: HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is unclear whether HIV andHCV are also associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD).Weexamined the association of HIV,HCV, and traditionalCVDrisk factors with PAD in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter US cohort. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ankle–brachial index was estimated using Doppler ultrasound and manual sphygmomanometer in 1899 participants aged more than 40 years with HIV/HCV coinfection, HCV or HIV monoinfection, or neither infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of PAD (ankle–brachial index _0.9) after controlling for demographic, behavioral, and CVD risk factors.


Results: Over two-thirds were African-American, median age was 50 years, and PAD prevalence was 7.7% with little difference by infection status. After multivariable adjustment, neither HIV nor HCV infection was associated with greater odds of PAD. Factors associated with PAD included older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.01 for age 61–70 vs. 40–50 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 3.87], Black race (aOR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.63), smoking (aOR: 1.27 per 10-pack-year increment; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.48), and higher SBP (aOR: 1.14 per 10mmHg; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.28).


Conclusion: The high PAD prevalence in this nationally representative cohort of women with or at risk for HIV is on par with general population studies in individuals a decade older than our study’s median age. HIV and HCV infection are not associated with greater PAD risk relative to uninfected women with similar risk factors. Modifiable traditional CVD risk factors may be important early intervention targets in women with and at risk for HIV. 


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AIDS 2019, 33:2025–2033